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National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme
The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP) covers 6 vector borne diseases namely
It has four main objectives (a) Early case detection & Prompt Treatment (b) Vector control measures (c) Capacity Building & (d) IEC/BCC activities
Vector Borne Diseases like Malaria, JE, & Dengue are found in Nagaland.
Malaria is endemic in all the 11 districts whereas JE cases are detected
in 9 districts (Dimapur, Kohima, Longleng, Mokokchung, Mon, Peren,
Tuensang, Wokha & Zunheboto) & Dengue only from one District i.e Dimapur.
Through the implementation of NVBDCP program activities in our State, it
has shown its achievement by decreasing in Malarial cases and decline in
no of deaths due to Vector Borne cases.
National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (NFME) 2016- 2030 was launched by Hon’ble Health & Family Welfare Minister, Govt of India in February, 2016.
Key indicators, achievements, 12th Plan targets
Number of Malaria, JE & Dengue cases & Deaths from 2014- 2016
Presently, in Nagaland we have one JE Sentinel Site Hospital attached to Dimapur Civil Hospital where confirmatory test for suspected JE /AES is been done . The number of cases & deaths reported under this SSH is shown below.
Bivalent RDT & ACT-AL:
Rapid Test Kit which can be tested both for Plasmodium Vivax & Plasmodium Falciparum has been made available through Central Supply in 2013. These Tests kits are used in high endemic areas, and where there is no facility for Peripheral Blood Slide Examination.
There have been instances of resistance to ACT-SP regimen used for treatment of Falciparum malaria, Therefore instead of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine combination. The Standard treatment for Falciparum malaria has been changed to Artesunate Lumefanthrine ( ACT-AL).
Other routine activities like monitoring & Supervision, training of manpower, integrated vector management activities, Review Meetings, IEC/BCC Activities are being carried out.
Entomology under NVBDCP:
Among Vector Borne Diseases, Malaria continues to figure prominently owing to its wider prevalence and distribution in the Country. In addition to Malaria, the steady spread of Japanese Encephalitis, as wells the re-occurrence of dengue/DHF in Urban areas made the task of controlling these diseases a difficult one.
Keeping in view the urgent need to remain in full preparedness for combating these diseases, it was necessary to prepare operational Guidelines as on Entomological aspects of the diseases. These guidelines provide full Chronology of the Entomological measures that are required to be carried out in the fields for generating precise data which will provide a definite pointer towards the disease trends & will help concern authorities to be vigilant for any combat operation that may be required to suppress any outbreak of Vector Borne Diseases. These will also help the State to generate the information on various ecological aspects of the Vectors including Susceptibility Status as well as impact of different insecticides been used .
There are fluctuations in incidence from year to year and during different season of the same year. However, when there is a break down in the Control measures focal outbreaks of VBD may occur. The lack of Entomological Monitoring & consequent lack of information on the exact Transmission potential over a number of years may led to focal outbreaks. Entomological information with regard to vector Density, Vector Longevity, Susceptibility to insecticide, Sporozoite rate and Man – Mosquito Contact co-related with Epidemiological parameters is essential to get a complete picture of a VBD in an area. Entomological Investigation in the Persistent transmission foci and during Outbreak areas can play a vital role in planning Control Strategy for the disease. For instance by Entomological Investigation It can be Established whether anti- adult measures are effective or not to interrupt the transmission and type of appropriate intervention can be applied to achieve results within a specific time frame. Data on change in feeding & Resting Behavior , incrimination of suspected vectors & Vector Resistance to insecticides are the main Entomological Inputs for deciding control Strategy.
Different Activities are undertaken for effective use of Insecticide Treated Bednet ( ITBN) or Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Bed Nets ( LLIN). The success of ITBN/ LLIN Strategy required Comprehensive Information on the following Aspects of Mosquito Bionomics which are also undertaken by Entomologists:
(a) Feeding & resting Behavior
(b) Biting Time
(c) Transmission Dynamics
(d) Length of Transmission Season
(e) Socio-Cultural Factors &
(f) Socio- Economics
Larval Control Measures are undertaken by Urban Vector Borne Disease Control with Chemical & Biological Controls. Routine Checking of Water Bodies are carried out and if found positive for breeding of Mosquitoes, anti Larval measures are taken up in those breeding Places. Larvivorous fish Hatchery is also maintaining & Distribution to different Bodies in the States from time to time is also maintaining as a measure of Biological Control .
The monthly Technical ( Entomological ) Reports are submitting in 11 Performa ( EF 1-11) every month to NVBDCP Delhi . The map of the zones showing the District & health unit, Index villages indicating the Status of Different Vectors are Recorded & send along with the Annual Report.
LLIN (Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets):-
To reduce mosquito population for controlling malaria, a number of methods are available like larvicidal fish, Indoor Residual Spray with insecticides, elimination of breeding sites by methods like filling up of small pits and ditches, channelization of canal, sanitation activities through Village Health and Sanitation Committee, covering of open water containers etc. Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) is a newer & effective intervention to prevent human-mosquito contact by acting as a barrier and it also kills the mosquitoes coming in contact with net. The Directorate of National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoH&FW), Govt. of India has supplied about 9,15,067 LLINs for needy people of high risk areas of Nagaland for free of cost distribution.
District wise Distribution of LLIN Bales:
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